September

  1. 1159 Death of Pope Adrian IV, Nicholas Breakspear – the only English Pope
    1422 Henry VI crowned King of England
  2. 1022 Death of Mael Sechnaill (High King of Ireland)
    1192 Treaty of Jaffa (Third Crusade)
  3. 1189 Richard I crowned King of England
  4. 925  Æthelstan crowned King of Wessex
    1241 Birth of Alexander III (King of Scots)
    1346 Siege of Calais begins (Hundred Years’ War)
  5. 1187 Birth of Louis VIII (King of France)
  6. 1151 Death of Geoffey Plantagenet, progenitor of the Plantagenet dynasty
    1191 Battle of Arsuf (Third Crusade)
    1228 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II arrives in Acre (Sixth Crusade)
    1303 Pope Boniface VIII abducted on the orders of Phillip IV of France
  7. 1157 Birth of Richard I (King of England)
  8. 1087 Death of William I (King of England)
    1087 William II ‘Rufus’ succeeds to English throne
  9. 954 Death of King Louis IV (of the Franks)
    1000 Battle of Svolder (Danish-Norwegian naval battle)
    1000 Death of Olaf Tryggvason (King of Norway)
    1167 Death of Matilda of England (Holy Roman Empress, heir to English throne)
    1419 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, executed on the orders of the Dauphin
  10. 1161 Death of Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem
    1297 Battle of Stirling Bridge (First War of Scottish Independence)
  11. 1213 Battle of Muret (Albigensian Crusade)
    1217 Treat of Kingston ends First Baron’s War (and French claims to English throne)
  12. 908 Battle of Ballaghmoon (intra-Irish conflict)
  13. 1265 Death of Dante Alighieri (Italian writer and poet)
    1402 Battle of Homildon Hill (Anglo-Scottish conflict)
  14. 1380 Death of King Charles V (of France)
    1400 Glyndŵr Uprising begins, Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales
  15. Feast of Hildegard of Bingen, German abbess, mystic, philosopher, scientist, polymath… (died 1179)
    1387 Birth of Henry V (King of England)
  16. 1137 Death of King Erik II (of Denmark)
    1180 Death of King Louis VII (of France)
    1180 Philip II ‘Augustus’ crowned King of France
  17. 1356 Battle of Poitiers (Hundred Years’ War)
  18. 1066 Battle of Fulford (Viking invasions of England)
    1187 Saladin‘s Siege of Jerusalem begins (Crusader States)
    1260 The Great Prussian Uprising begins (Prussians v. Teutonic Knights, Baltic Crusades)
  19. 1217 Battle of Matthew’s Day (Livonian Crusaders v. Estonians, Baltic Crusades)
    1327 Death of King Edward II (of England)
    1411 Birth of Richard of York, Lord Protector of England, claimant to English throne
    1435 Congress of Arras – Peace Negotiations (Hundred Years’ War)
  20. 1236 Battle of Saule (Livonian Crusaders v. Samogitians, Baltic Crusades)
    1350 Siege of Harfleur ends (Hundred Years’ War)
  21. Feast of St Adomnán (died c. 794)
    1241 Snorri Sturluson, Icelandic politician and historian, assassinated
    1338 Battle of Arnemuiden (Hundred Years’ War, first recorded European naval battle to include the use of artillery)
    1459 Battle of Blore Heath (Wars of the Roses)
  22. 1332 Edward Balliol crowned King of Scotland
  23. 1066 Battle of Stamford Bridge (Viking invasions of England)
    1066 Death of King Harald Hardrada (of Norway)
    1237 Treaty of York signed (Anglo-Scottish conflict)
  24. 1087 William II ‘Rufus’ crowned King of England
    1290 Death of Margaret, Maid of Norway en route to Scotland, sparks Scottish succession crisis
  25. 1106 Battle of Tinchebray, Henry I defeats & captures his brother Robert Curthose
  26. 1011 Vikings capture Canterbury and imprison Archbishop Ælfheah
    1227 Frederik II, Holy Roman Emperor, excommunicated
    1267 Treaty of Montgomery (Anglo-Cambrian treaty)
    1276 Birth of Christopher II (King of Denmark and arguably the worst of them)
    1364 Battle of Auray (Hundred Years’ War)
  27. 1399 Henry IV succeeds to the English throne

Calendar header images are taken from the decoration adorning the corresponding month in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (c. 1416).

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European Medieval History from the Viking Age to the Hundred Years' War

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