July

Key events in medieval history.

  1. 1097 Battle of Dorylaeum (First Crusade)
    1277 Death of Sultan Baibars (of Egypt and Syria)
    1348 Death of Princess Joan (of England) – black death
  2. 936 Death of King Henry the Fowler (of East Frankia)
    936 Otto I succeeds as King of East Frankia
    1266 Treaty of Perth establishes Scottish, rather than Norwegian, sovereignty over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man
  3. 987 Hugh Capet crowned King of the Franks
    1035 William [the Conqueror] becomes Duke of Normandy
  4. 1187 Battle of Hattin (Saladin v. Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem)
    1187 Execution of Raynald of Châtillon, ex Prince of Antioch, Lord of Oultrejordain
    1190 Richard I of England and King Philippe II of France depart on the Third Crusade from Vézelay in France
    1456 Siege of Belgrade begins (Ottoman Empire v. Kingdom of Hungary)
  5. 1189 Death of King Henry II (of England)
    1249 Death of King Alexander II (of Scots)
    1415 Jan Hus burned as a heretic at the Council of Constance
    1483 Richard III crowned King of England
  6. 1124 Tyre falls to Crusader forces
    1307 Death of King Edward I (of England)
    1456 Jeanne d’Arc posthumously declared innocent of heresy
  7. 975 Death of King Edgar the Peaceful (of the Anglo-Saxons)
    1307 Edward II succeeds as King of England
  8. 1228 Death of Stephen Langton, English Cardinal and Archbishop of Canterbury
  9. 1086 Death of King Cnut IV (of Denmark)
    1103 Death of King Erik I (of Denmark)
    1460 Battle of Northampton (Wars of the Roses)
  10. 1274 Birth of Robert Bruce (King of Scots)
    1302 Battle of the Golden Spurs (Franco-Flemish War)
  11. 927 King Constantine II of Scots and his allies formally accept Æthelstan’s overlordship in a meeting at Eamont
    1109 Tripoli falls to Crusader forces
    1174 King Henry II performs public penance at Canterbury for the murder of Thomas Beckett
    1191 Acre surrenders to Crusader forces
  12. 1024 Death of Henry II (Holy Roman Emperor)
    1174 Battle of Alnwick ends in the capture of King William I of Scots by the English
    1205 Death of Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England
    1249 Alexander III crowned King of Scots
    1260 Battle of Durbe (Lithuania v. Livonian Order, Baltic Crusades)
  13. 1077 Bayeux Tapestry first displayed at the dedication of Bayeux Cathedral
    1223 Death of King Philippe II (of France)
    1420 Battle of Vitkov Hill (Hussite Wars)
  14. 1015 Death of Vladimir ‘the Great’ (Grand Prince of Kiev)
    1099 Jerusalem falls to Crusader forces (First Crusade)
    1240 Battle of the Neva (Swedish-Novgorod Wars)
    1381 Execution of John Ball, leader in the Peasants’ Revolt
    1410 Battle of Grunwald (Poland & Lithuania v. Teutonic Order, Baltic Crusades)
  15. 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (Spanish Reconquista)
    1215 Death of Pope Innocent III
    1377 Richard II crowned King of England
  16. Feast of St Kenelm of Mercia (died c. 819)
    924 Death of King Edward ‘the Elder’ (of Anglo-Saxons)
    1429 Charles VII crowned King of France
    1453 Battle of Castillon (Hundred Years’ War)
  17. 1100 Death of Godfrey of Bouillon (Defender of the Holy Sepulchre)
    1194 Death of Guy of Lusignan (King of Jerusalem)
    1203 Constantinople falls to Crusader forces (Fourth Crusade)
    1290 Edward I issues the Edict of Expulsion, expelling Jews from England
    1389 The Treaty of Leulinghem establishes the longest cessation of hostilities in the Hundred Years’ War (13 years)
  18. 1223 Birth of Baibars (Sultan of Egypt and Syria)
    1333 Battle of Halidon Hill (Wars of Scottish Independence)
  19. 1189 Richard I formally succeeds as Duke of Normandy
    1453 Death of Enguerrand de Monstrelet (French chronicler)
  20. 1403 Battle of Shrewsbury (rebellion against Edward IV)
    1403 Death of Henry Percy (AKA Harry Hotspur)
  21. 1209 Massacre at Beziers (Albigensian Crusade)
    1298 Battle of Falkirk (Wars of Scottish Independence)
    1456 Siege of Belgrade ends in Ottoman defeat
    1461 Death of King Charles VII (of France)
  22. 1403 Execution of Thomas Percy
  23. 1148 Siege of Damascus begins (Second Crusade)
    1304 Stirling Castle falls to Edward I (Wars of Scottish Independence)
  24. 1137 [King] Louis VII of France marries Eleanor of Acquitaine
    1261 Constantinople recaptured and the Eastern Roman Empire re-established
    1278 Naval Battle of Algeciras (Spanish Reconquista)
  25. 1469 Battle of Edgecote Moor (Wars of the Roses)
  26. 1214 Battle of Bouvines (Anglo-French War)
  27. 796 Death of King Offa (of Mercia)
    1030 Battle of Stiklestad (Norwegian War of Succession)
    1030 Death of King Olaf II (of Norway)
    1108 Death of King Philippe I (of France)
    1148 Siege of Damascus ends in Crusader defeat
  28. 1423 Battle of Cravant (Hundred Years’ War)

Calendar header images are taken from the decoration adorning the corresponding month in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (c. 1416).

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European Medieval History from the Viking Age to the Hundred Years' War

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